Why Whales Strand: The Logical Truth

Notice that the waves and current are always washing towards the beach when whales strand!


The logical truth can not be considered untrue;
nor can any situation arise to cause us to deny it.

by Capt. David Williams

2013 science article about whale strandings (free PDF file)
seaquake solutions to previous whale mass strandings

Sinus barotrauma caused by rapid and excessive changes in diving pressures is the most common injury in scuba divers. Might such an injury also be common in the massive cranial air spaces of toothed whales and dolphins, the most prolific divers the world has ever known? If so, is it possible that barotrauma within the air chambers of a whale’s head could scramble the echonavigation system of a diving whale? What about an entire pod of diving whales? And, if sinus barotrauma did indeed knock out their biosonar system, would a
 non-navigating pod seek out a beach on which to land?

The last question is the easiest so let’s answer it first. If a pod of whales were exposed to extreme changes in diving pressures that caused the sudden loss of its acoustic sense of direction, the only course they could possibly swim would be downstream in path of least drag. No marine mammal could swim upstream without strong sense of direction. It’s like water always flows downhill. Everything lost at sea always travels downstream. Add to this the fact that the current guiding a lost pod is the same energy that builds and maintains beaches, and you begin to understand why a pod of non-navigating whales usually finds their way to a spot of sand.  

To solve the mystery of why pods of whales have been swimming blindly into the sand for millions of years, all we need is some kind of natural seafloor upheaval that could generate rapid and excessive alteration in hydrostatic pressures and catch the whales by surprise. If such an incident happened, the volume of air inside their enclosed cranial air space would bounce up and down in direct proportion to the changes in diving pressures (Boyle’s gas law). But what type of seafloor disturbances is most likely to occur below a pod of diving whales?

This part is easy too. The most severe changes in diving pressure are generated when the rocky seabed jerks up and down during undersea earthquakes. Often the P-waves from an extremely shallow (<5km) hypocenter can traverse the rock-water interface without distortion or loss of intensity and move directly into water. If either of the above happens with any detectable precursors signals, the entire diving pod is caught off guard. 

Seafloor earthquakes above 6.5 magnitude usually emit detectable precursors so these strong events rarely cause pod injuries. Earthquakes focused deeper than ~15 km usually do not cause strandings because the P-waves are weakened as the spread out in a circle from the foci. Earthquakes at or near 5.5 magnitude focused less than 5 km below the rock-water interface  are the most dangerous mostly because many of them do not give off precursors and they lose less of the energy due to spreading.

You can get a general idea of what it feels like to experience a seaquake by reading about the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 (Volume 5) edited by the National Research Council (link). Twenty pages therein discuss seaquake experiences. I recommend you start with the first page.

Or, you can read a revealing report published in 1966 by none other than the US Navy—the absolute final authority on seaquakes. Shortly after the National Research Council published so many seaquake-vessel encounters, the US Navy’s Marine Safety Division felt the need to issue a safety warning on the danger of seaquakes. They made it clear in their summary on the left side of page 59 that  “MARINE LIFE CAN BE DESTROYED BY A SEAQUAKE.” The Marine Safety Division of the US Navy also confirmed that undersea earthquakes could bust open a ship and sink it like a sack of rocks. They stated on the last page: Damaging seaquake: The ship may be thrown about in the water with such force that mast, booms, superstructure and machinery as well as the hull may be damaged. It is possible for seams to be opened to such an extent that flooding cannot be contained and the vessel sinks.

If a seaquake can rip open a ship and sink it like a stone, what would happen to a pod of whales caught near the bottom when a million tons of rock suddenly split apart? 

Since hydrostatic pressure changes above the epicenter of a seafloor earthquake can do a lot of damage to shipping, we can easily argue that these same disturbances can rupture the air sinuses of a pod of diving whales. As mentioned above, this is true because the volume of air in their inclosed cranial air spaces will bounce back and forth in tune with the changes in the surrounding water pressure.

And, because the air held inside these cranial air spaces serves underwater as acoustic mirrors, ruptured sinuses would destroy their acoustic sense of direction. It would be like an M-80 firecracker went off inside their head.

seaquake kills 5 whales
June 1945 – 5 whales killed by seaquake. The US Navy knows that a series of seismic pressure shocks can easily sink ships, kill and injure pods of whales, kill fish with swim bladders, kill and injure sea turtles, and also kill every other breath-holding diving mammals including polar bears, seals, walrus, and humans. It has been that way for millions of years; yet, the US Navy refuse inform the whale-loving public.

The danger to marine life was not newly discovered by the Navy is 1966. Thousands of seamen have witnessed dead whales and massive schools of dead fish floating after a concussion from a seaquake but thought such seaquake carnage was normal as revealed by the 1945 example on the left. Fishermen and whalers just went out to sea, hooked up to the dead whales and towed them to the whaling station and collected some cash. No alarm at all and no one doubted that a seaquake could injure a pod of whales or kill a school of fish.

In fact, few people cared in 1945 why whales mass beached themselves. They cut them up, sold the meat to mink farmers, and the oil to watchmakers.

Search old newspaper archives and older books going back to the time when they first started printing the news and you will find reports from thousands of mariners who experienced a seaquake and lived to tell their stories. I have collected over 5,000 seaquake-vessels encounters and am slowly getting them all posted on the Internet to prove that seaquake shock waves are indeed dangerous to ships and pods of diving whales. Read these reports. This is not my opinion. These are the actual stories from those who experienced a natural undersea upheaval. Some are not so scary; others are hellish nightmares.

The 1966 article referenced above proves without an ounce of doubt that the US Navy has known for at least 60 years that seaquakes could sink ships and kill and injure marine life.  So why have they NEVER investigated or even discussed whether a seaquake might cause pods of whales or dolphins to mass strand? Why have they NEVER wondered if a seaquake might injure baleen whales like in the news clip above?  Why are whale scientists still scratching their heads, taking thousands of tissue samples, and pretending they are clueless about why whales beach themselves?

Stop reading right here and think about the answers to the above questions!

Here are some facts to also ponder. Why does the US Navy and the oil industry sponsor 97% of all whale research worldwide? Are they just generous? Or, are they trying to control whale research like big tobacco control research into lung cancer?  Why do these two groups insist that the world’s whale scientists work for them? They are the world’s worst underwater acoustical polluters. This is the same as putting the fox in charge of the chickens. The poor chicken scientists must do exactly what the fox says if they expect to get any money.

What I’ve showed you above should be enough to cause you to wonder if I’m right or not. Now I want you to answer the following question. Since the US Navy already knew that seaquakes can kill marine life back in 1966, why is it that they NEVER gave their puppet scientists a little money to investigate seaquakes as the possible answer to the centuries-old mystery of why whales mass strand themselves? Why is it that they NEVER funded a study to see if seaquakes kill whales as revealed in the news clip above? They already confirmed that seaquakes kill marine life!

According to our puppet whale scientists, mass strandings of whales is one of the most confounded mysteries in nature. They’ve cut up a half-million beached whales to find the answer and still profess to be ignorant.

Are they pulling our legs?

The answer to this question seems even more mysterious when you consider that the idea of whales beaching themselves due to a sinus pressure injury has been around a long long time.

Professors Kenneth Norris and George Harvey first suggested that healthy cranial air spaces were necessary for echo-navigation in their 1972 paper entitled “A Theory for the Function of the Spermaceti Organ of the Sperm Whale.” (Link to this highly recommended article) Therein, these two famous cetologists state:

“The structure of the two vertically oriented air sacs that bound the ends of the spermaceti organ suggest that they are sound mirrors. The posterior sac (the frontal sac) possesses a knob-covered posterior wall that is probably an adaptation allowing maintenance of the sound mirror in any body orientation and during deep dives, Finally this complex anatomical system is suggested as a device for the production of long range echolocation sounds useful to the sperm whale in its deep sea habitat, in which food must be located at considerable distances in open water.”

Moreover, on page 20 (chapter 16) of a 1977 book, edited by Professor Norris entitled Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises the famous cetacean anatomists and curator at the British Museum of Natural History, Dr. Peter Purves, stated:

“It is very easy to imagine a condition in which the air-sac system has broken down, so that it is no longer reflecting, and, with the isolation of the essential organs of hearing disrupted, the animal may lose its sense of direction.”  (link)

The words of Dr. Purves spun around in my head like a whirlwind. But rather than think of one lost whale, I kept thinking that an entire pod might lose their sense of direction at the same time if exposed to a powerful underwater disturbance in diving pressures.

It seemed to me that even prior to 1977, scientists were indeed trying to understand how pods of whales might lose their acoustic sense of direction. At a 1977 mass stranding in Florida, scientists suggested to a newspaper reporter that, “the directional sonar, which steers them away from danger, somehow went awry.” (link)

I read it and thought, “Damn, that’s the same thing that Dr. Purves is saying.” A sinus injury might indeed destroy their directional sonar.

Whale scientists stopped saying that whales might suffer echonavigation failure in the 1980’s. But I could never forget the words of Dr. Peter Purves. I believed what he said in 1977 and I still believe it today. 

My Seaquake Hypothesis is in total agreement with the idea of the loss of echonavigation due to a sinus injury causes beachings in odontoceti. Seaquake induced barosinusitis would indeed cause the breakdown of the air sac system, which would result in the whales losing all sense of direction.

The acoustic purpose of the sinuses was recently confirmed by Drs. Alex Costidis and Sentinel A. Rommel (Link) who wrote:

“The cetacean accessory sinus system is unique; these un-pigmented mucosa-lined structures, which are located on the ventral aspect of the skull, are typically associated with hearing and acoustic isolation of the ears. The ventral sinus system is distinguished from the dorsal air sacs by appearance and function; the lining of the dorsal sacs is composed of pigmented epithelium and these sacs are associated with sound production.”

Even as late as 1983, scientists suggested that the biosonar system of 41 sperm whales stranded on the Oregon Coast might have been jammed by a seaquake (link). In fact,  scientists suggested way back in 1946 that an undersea upheaval could stun whales and cause them to lose their sense of direction (link). The idea that a pod of whales swim blindly into a beach because their biosonar system has been disabled by severe changes in diving pressure during a natural undersea upheaval should have been rule out in the 1960s. This idea should have especially been ruled out in the late 1960s after the US Navy confirmed that seaquakes could kill marine life.

Obviously, both the US Navy and whale scientists they bribe are hiding the connection between seaquakes, sinus barotrauma, and a total loss of the acoustic sense of direction in mass stranded whales.

Is there a Specific Reason for a US Navy Cover-up?

In May 1968, two years after warning mariners that seaquakes could kill marine life and sink ships, the sleek nuclear attack submarine USS Scorpion mysteriously sank in the seismically-active Azores Islands along with her crew of 99 US sailors. There were no seaquakes in the official US government records, but purging these files would have been a simple matter of an admiral making a 2 minute phone call. And, there were no seismic stations in the Azores capable of detecting a dangerous quake near where the Scorpion was located when she sent her last message.

The rumor started by the US Navy and then denied was that the Russians had sank the Scorpion. However, certain actions by the Office of Naval Research suggest that Russian involvement was a cover-up story.  On 15 December 1968, in a transaction withheld from the press and the public, the Office of Naval Research signed a $2.6 million contract with Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego to complete a study entitled OVERPRESSURES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES PROJECT (link).  Even though this research was not officially classified, it was buried deep in the basement of the Pentagon until 2015 when a digital copy was accidentally released by the National Technical Information Service (NTIS copy). I assure you, the US Navy did not want this release to take place.

The implications are clear. Regardless that the 1966 article proves otherwise, the admirals were pretending in 1968 to know nothing about how seaquakes sink ships. They wanted a new research document from Scripps informing them (after the fact) that overpressures from a seaquake could indeed sink the $40-million-dollar USS Scorpion. They were also asking the scientists at Scripps to draw up a SEAQUAKE HAZARDS CHART so they could keep the five other Skipjack-class submarines out of harm’s way until they could retire the entire flawed design without embarrassing themselves. This they ordered even though the 1966 report by the US Navy’s Maritime Safety Division included a far better SEAQUAKE HAZARDS CHART then they got from Scripps. The 1966 report also proved that they knew seaquakes could sink ships and submarines.

This research effort was obviously instigated as a fallback story in case Congress discovered that Scorpion was indeed a victim of an undersea earthquake. Congress would have demanded to know how a quake at sea could sink a modern nuclear submarine and why the US Navy did not know about it.

The USS Scorpion would have survived the encounter had it not been for her horrible state of disrepair, the stress cracks in her stern, and the fact that her emergency blow system was not working was what doomed her crew to a horrible death. The fallback plan was for the admirals to pretend that they knew nothing about the real danger of seaquakes. The cover-up would have never been detected had the US Navy purged all the documents as originally planned. They missed the 1966 report and the 1968 study mentioned above. Now the truth will come out and they have some explaining to do to the families of the 99 crewmen.

It was also obvious in 1966 that the US Navy’s Maritime Safety Office wanted the public to know that seaquakes could sink ships. On the other hand, in 1968, after the nuclear submarine USS Scorpion disappeared, the US Navy changed its mind and decided that the public should know nothing about the dangers of seaquakes. This is the main reason why they would never investigate seaquakes as the cause of whale mass strandings.

Another reason why they did not want the public thinking about seaquakes is because the USS Scorpion might still be leaking dangerous radiation into Azorean fishing grounds. They are afraid someone like me might expose their dirty secrets. I would kept my mouth shut if the US Navy would have promised to mend their evil lying ways. The US Navy needs to stop lying about why whales beach themselves, there is far more important things to consider than the reputation of a few dead admirals. (Read more of the Scorpion Cover-up)

Now Back to Why Whales Strand 

According to the law of parsimony, when selecting between hypotheses that predict equally well, we should pick the one with the fewest assumptions.

Since the US Navy has already confirmed that seaquakes kill marine life, and likely sunk the nuclear attack submarine USS Scorpion, the simplest hypothesis to explain why whales strand is that a seaquake has injured an entire pod in a way that causes them to lose their acoustic sense of direction and they swim blindly downstream until the current carries them to a beach, usually at night when the waves are kicked up and their eyesight is not so keen.

The more we think about a pod of whales not being able to acoustically sense the beach directly in front of them, the more the idea makes sense, especially for the most common nighttime beachings.

Scientists say the sloping beach does not return a good echo. They also say that sand and bubbles in the rough surf also blocks whale sonar. But why would healthy whales with functional biosonar continue to swim up the sloping beach when the obvious solution to the dilemma of failed navigation is to turn around and swim back out to deep water. Healthy whales would never swim into an area where they could not see what’s in front them. Furthermore, if it was a condition at the beach, why are they super dehydrated and have no food in their stomachs?

Allow me to reenforce and important point: It’s surprisingly easy to figure out the direction that a pod of non-navigating whales will swim because the only direction they can swim is downstream with the flow of the surface currents. Everything lost at sea either floats or swims downstream in the path of least drag. It’s like water always flows downhill. Everything on the surface of the ocean without a good sense of direction will be directed by the current into the downstream path of least resistance (drag). If lost whales tried to swim upstream, drag forces would turn them around in a matter of seconds and point them head first in the path of the flowing water. It would be impossible for a lost pod to swim in any other direction for more than 15 seconds.

On the other hand, if their acoustic sense of direction was already disabled, they would have no idea that they were swimming into a sand trap.

Notice that the waves and tidal currents are always washing ashore when whales strand.

That the swim path of stranded whales is being controlled by the surface currents was noticed by Dr. Daniel Odell in 1980s. He said, “The movement of the water could even explain mass strandings.” (link) (link) He also notice that when strandings occur along Florida’s East Coast, there was an unusual deep intrusion of  clear blue Gulf Stream water in close to the shoreline.  This was and still is easy to spot by observing the color change near shore; deep blue waters are always close to shore when whales strand.

The fact that whales are swimming with the downstream current when they go ashore is a dead give-away that they have no sense of direction on their own.  Dr. Odell was right. He published a science paper in 2005 confirming the role that currents play in guiding whales ashore (link). If he had added a seaquake-damaged biosonar system to his hypothesis he would have solved the mystery of why whales strand before I did. We released a similar article about the Gray whales that died off Point Barrow Alaska in 1988 (link). We explained how lost gray whales followed the northern flow of the surface currents and got trapped in the ice.

Why can’t today’s whale scientists see that Dr. Odell was right? It’s strange that NOAA stranding coordinators and the rescue teams NEVER mention the flow of current during a stranding. Are whale scientists and rescue teams both participating with the US Navy to hide the real reason why whales strand? If you want to know the answer, read this link.

It is also commonly known that the flow of the current washes sand to the shore to build beaches. This means that since the downstream flow is guiding the lost pod, the odds are overwhelming that the surface current will direct the lost whales to a beach. The evidence is clear all around the world. Those beaches with hooked shapes that oppose the flow of the usual current trap the most sand and the most whales. Farewell Spit in New Zealand, Cape Sorell in Tasmania, and Cape Cod in the USA are the three best examples.

Here’s another little hint that we are on the right track. If we pushed the stranded whales and/or dolphins back into the water while the wind-driven current and the tidal flow are still washing ashore, the inflow will simply turn them around and point them right back to the beach. This has happened thousands of times in the past and the scientists and rescue teams ignored the obvious reason for it.

The whale stranding coordinators working for NOAA don’t want the truth out because it would cost them their jobs. The stranding teams don’t the truth out because they would be super embarrassed if they public ever found out that they rescuing acoustically blinds whales that were already doomed to die. The prefect theory for NOAA and the rescue teams they support is that the entire pod is following one or two sick individuals because they love each other too much. This is a total fabrication is every way. Survival of the fittest is the first law of nature—healthy whales would never swim into the sand and die because a pod mate was sick.

And, if you ever wonder why a pod of whales or dolphins end up stuck in the mud of a backwater lagoon, just check the times that the incoming tide was washing rapidly through the inlet and you will see that the strong inbound flow of water created a strong path of least drag that drew the lost pod into the backwaters. In fact, no matter where you look, if you check the tides and the wind-driven currents at the time of the beaching you will see that the current was always washing towards the stranding beach and NEVER away from it.

Here’s another little tidbit to shock you. The only time a stranded pod with no acoustic sense of direction will swim away from shore is when they are pushed back into the water at the same time the wind-driven currents and/or tidal flow are washing back out to sea. This is exactly how rescue teams claim to save whales—they wait until the surface currents are flowing out towards deep water and then release the lost whales pretending that they had made another successful rescue. In other words, that beached whales have no sense of direction agrees with the consistent observations that they MUST be released when the current is flowing back out to sea.

There is even more consistent factual observations we can add to echonavigation failure as the reason why whales strand.

The two most consistent findings in a pod of beached whales and/or dolphins is that they are severely dehydrated and have no fresh food in their stomachs. Sticking with the law of parsimony, the explanation that requires the least assumptions is that the pod lost its ability to dive and feed itself a few weeks before it went ashore. This agrees with a pressure-related sinus injury that causes the loss of echonavigation because whatever caused the echo-navigation failure would also render the pod unable to dive and echolocate its food. And since all the pod’s fresh water comes from the food they eat, the loss of biosonar function along with the the loss of the ability to dive would explain both dehydration and no fresh food in their stomachs.

why whales strand
Lost pilot whale spyhopping to avoid the rocks.

Here’s one more small clue. You will often see a lost whale raise its head out the water to look around like the one of the left. Notice that the tip of his snout is raw from running blindly into rocks. Whales can often be seen spyhopping near shore, trying to avoid the beach.

There’s one more consistent observation we can add. Beached whales and dolphins show up on the beach many times with the skin burnt off their backs. Obviously, they have spent many days in the burning hot sun even before they stranded. The only way this could happen is if they had lost the ability to dive and were forced to swim on the surface for days in a calm sea. When we coupled the burnt back with loss of echonavigation, the dehydration, and no fresh food in the stomach, we get the picture that the pod is not diving to feed itself. This makes it easier to assume that the injury that knocked out their biosonar system was a diving-related pressure injury resulting in a sinus barotrauma that prevents them from diving.

So now we have a pod of lost whales that can not dive and feed themselves. If we go back to the law of parsimony, the simplest assumption is that our pod has encounter a series of rapid and excessive pressure changes (seaquakes more likely than not) that has ruptured one or two of the their many sinuses and small air sacs that make up their cranial air spaces. In other words, barotrauma in the cranial air spaces is the cause of the loss of biosonar and the ultimate reason why whales mass strand.

The pods of pelagic whales that mass      beach feed along mid-ocean ridges.

We know of six common sources of pressure disturbances that might cause sinus barotrauma in a pod of diving whales. Since whales have been mass stranding for millions of years, a few sources need to be ancient.  The three that immediately come to mind are seaquakes, volcanic explosions, and the rare time when a heavenly body slams into the water’s surface. The US Navy agrees with us on the natural seafloor disturbances.

Modern sources of sinus barotrauma in whales would be military sonar, oil industry airguns, and underwater explosions. The US Navy agrees that these sources can injury whales, but they deny having any knowledge about how the injury might occur. This hints that they are not only covering up seaquakes but also sinus barotrauma as well.

You might also want to read:

A Far More Detailed Version of the Above Article

Navigation Failure in Mass Stranded Whales  (my best article)

2 thoughts on “Why Whales Strand: The Logical Truth”

  1. Wow… Physicists Les Hamilton confirms (below) that submarine upheavals can cause whale strandings! He’s also right when he says the idea that undersea earthquakes might stun whales and knock out their acoustic sense of direction was first suggested before I was born. It was first mentioned in a short newspaper article in 1935. This concept was also confirmed in 1966 when the US Navy clearly stated that seaquakes could kill marine life and sink ships. My first published article about seaquakes did not appear until 1987.

    For my readers, Dr. Les Hamilton is the famous sonar physicist who works for the Australian Navy (DSTO). It’s nice to see that an acoustical physicist now agrees with the idea that seaquakes cause whales to strand.

    As to why I mention the US Navy’s cover-up of the 1968 sinking of the nuclear submarine USS Scorpion by a seaquake: This is a historical event and backed up by clear and convincing evidence. Anyone interested should take a look at http://deafwhale.com/uss-scorpion/

    I can also understand why a Australian Navy sonar expert might feel threatened by my work. I like to assure Dr. Hamilton that I have no intention of trying to put military sonar out of business. In fact, I’m working on just the opposite. A few geophysicists friends have joined me in an effort to sort out how whales detect earthquake precursors. If we get lucky, we will be able to duplicate these signals and play them back to the whales in an effort to cause them to flee areas before military sonar is even used. The whales might even teach us humans how to detect major earthquakes many weeks before they occur. Lofty goals I know, but I like shooting for the stars, especially if it saves human lives and whales at the same time.

    Dr. Hamilton, why don’t you talk the Australian Navy into joining this effort? There is no doubt in my mind that great whales detect big quakes weeks in advance. It shouldn’t be too difficult to understand how they do it, especially with the Australian Navy’s help.

    But I doubt if the Australian, British, or the US Navy will be interested. This is why I’m so upset. You military guys are lying about whale strandings just to protect a few dead admirals. On the other hand, if you would help my group understand how whales detect earthquake precursors, we could save millions of human lives and the whales too. We might even win a Nobel Prize for our efforts. You should think seriously about joining us.

    The answer to why some earthquakes injure whales and others don’t is quite simple. Not all earthquakes give off the detectable precursors, especially those between 4.7 and 6.7 magnitude. These are the events that catch the whales by surprise. Most quakes above 6.7 are detectable by whales, especially major events near 8 magnitude. In fact, there is no record anywhere of whales being injured by earthquakes about 7 magnitude.

    I might also mention that some earthquakes can spread down a fault line for a hundred mile at a lightening-fast speed. Whales 50 miles away could easily be caught by surprise when this happens. These types of events are called super-shear quakes. They break the underwater sound barrier when they speed down the fault line faster than shear waves can travel.

    Here’s another little tidbit I bet you don’t know: All the calving grounds for the great whales in your part of the world are free of any dangerous earthquakes going back to when records were first kept. These earthquake-safe zones were selected as calving grounds over a million years ago. It seems the whales have known about the danger of seaquakes long before man ever walk upright.

    Don’t you think it is about time the Australian Navy admitted the truth instead of lying about whale strandings? It’s gonna catch up to them sooner or later. The quicker they confess to their lying ways, the better it will be in the minds of Australian citizens. You guys just can’t continue to lie forever. There is a day of reckoning coming soon.

  2. Dave, Subterranean upheavals might well cause some strandings. Who knows, it’s only an idea (and one conceived before your time), no matter how plausible. Why embellish this old idea with conspiracies, coverups by the US navy, obsession, whales near the bottom of the ocean (), radiation hazards, and other such confabulations. If whales “could detect seismic precursor signals weeks before the main shock” why would any ever die? Why would they be caught by surprise? There is no logic to your imaginations. If you kept to a simpler story then people might see some sense in it. Seems to me you are now deliberately broadcasting misinformation to the uninformed. How does that help anybody? The truth is out there? Perhaps it’s time to write your memoirs and leave the science to those qualified to do it. Regards, Les Hamilton

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