WHALES PREDICT EARTHQUAKES!
THE SITE IS BEING UPDATED
Counting the small events, about 2,000,000 earthquakes occur on our planet every year. Only 10% (200,000) occur on land. The other 90% (1,800,000) happen on the ocean floor in the backyard of cetaceans. This is because 90% of the Earth’s fault lines run along the seafloor. And not only are whales and dolphins exposed to 90% of the world’s earthquakes, they are exposed to 90% of Earth’s volcanic explosions.
Do you think it is strange that you are hearing the above for the first time from an old sea captain and not from a whale scientists? I bet 75% of those reading my words right now will not believe me simply because a whale scientists never told them that natural catastrophic upheavals on the seafloor are the greatest danger whales have ever faced in the 50 million years they been swimming on the high seas.
I also bet you never heard a whale scientists talk about a barotraumatic injury in the cranial and extracranial air spaces of whales.
IN FACT, SINUS AND MIDDLE EAR BAROTRAUMA IS A WHALE’S WORSE NIGHTMARE COME TRUE!
Pods of toothed whales and dolphins have been beaching since long before man ever stepped foot on Earth. Whale scientists are bewildered. They have written thousands of articles about this ancient mystery and published hundreds of theories. No single scientific concept has garnered wide support indicating the weakness in all of them.
Earthquake scientists have been aware since the 1880s that rapid and excessive pressure changes are induced into the undersea environment by submarine earthquakes and explosion. However, whale scientists have never investigated whether seismically induced changes in the surrounding water pressure might cause sinus or middle-ear barotrauma in whales and dolphins. Instead, they openly admit that they have no awareness or knowledge about how whales might deal with rapidly changing pressures or whether rapid pressure changes might induce barotraumatic injury. For example, Dr Darlene Ketten, the US Navy’s leading marine mammal acoustics expert, declared in a research paper dated Sept. 2000, and financed by the Office of Naval Research: ” . . . we (scientists) have no knowledge of what auditory structural adaptations these animals evolved to endure bathypelagic and rapidly changing pressures. . .”
Keep in mind that barotrauma in the sinuses and middle ear cavities is the slightest injury a diving mammal might endure if exposed to an excessive pressure disturbance. Said differently, a whale’s sinuses and middle-ear air cavities are the first to be injured when the animal is exposed to excessive pressure changes in the surrounding water.
Scientists have also been aware since the 1880s that rapid and excessive pressure changes are induced into the undersea environment by undersea earthquakes, volcanic explosions, the violent impact of a heavenly body with the ocean’s surface, and human use of explosives.
The strange part is that whale scientists have never investigated whether rapid and excessive change in the surrounding water pressure might cause sinus or middle-ear barotrauma in whales and dolphins. Instead, they openly admit that they have no awareness or knowledge about how whales might deal with rapidly changing pressures or whether rapid pressure changes might induce barotraumatic injury. For example, Dr Darlene Ketten, the US Navy’s leading marine mammal acoustics expert, declared in a research paper dated Sept. 2000, and financed by the Office of Naval Research:
“we (scientists) have no knowledge of what auditory structural adaptations these animals evolved to endure bathypelagic and rapidly changing pressures”
Keep in mind that barotrauma in the cranial air spaces is the slightest injury a diving mammal might endure if exposed to a series of excessive pressure change. Said differently, sinuses and middle-ear air cavities are the first to be injured when a diving mammal is exposed to pressure changes that exceed it’s ability to counter-balance. In fact, barotrauma is the #1 injury is all diving mammals, humans included.
Whales and dolphins are related to ancient land animals who went back into the sea about 50 million years ago—probably to look for new food sources. These four legged mammals were equipped with an outer, middle, and inner ears remarkably similar to modern man.
Other than possibly sharks, it seems reasonable to conclude that the greatest danger diving mammals faced millions of years ago was a diving-related injury such as barotrauma in their sinuses (barosinusitis) and/or middle ears (barotitis). This barotrauma would have been induced by powerful infrasonic changes in the surrounding water pressure during undersea earthquakes (seaquakes), volcanic eruptions, and violent meteorite impacts with the water’s surface.
If you doubt that powerful underwater infrasonic waves are dangerous to diving whales, please take the time to read this article on infrasound. You should also take the time to review the 300-year history of seaquake/vessel encounters: 1700 to 1899, and 1900 to 2012. These eyewitness reports from crew members of ships hit by seaquakes will prove beyond all doubt that undersea seismic disturbances are indeed capable of inducing infrasonic injury (barotrauma) in whales and dolphins.
If you still don’t believe undersea earthquakes are dangerous, read about the 1960’s scheme by US Navy to generate artificial seaquakes as a means to sink enemy vessels. The Navy got the idea to mimic underwater earthquakes as a way to destroy enemy shipping because six of its heavy battleships were slammed hard by a seaquake off the coast of California in 1919.
Infrasonic alteration in water pressure travel as longitudinal waves that oscillate back and forth between a phase of high pressure followed by an equal but opposite phase of low pressure.
Where would man expect to encounter a pod of lost whales suffering from barosinusitis? The simple answer is on the beach. Allow me to explain further. If the water was calm like the surface of a small pond, the non-navigating pod would swim in random directions, like a group of lost people wandering around on a desert. But the dynamic ocean is rarely calm. Surface currents usually flow in one direction or another.
No matter which way the currents flow, there will be far greater resistance to forward motion whenever the lost whales attempt to swim in any directions except downstream. In the dynamic oceans, downstream with the flow is always the path of least drag. Grasping this simple concept is necessary to understanding the solution to the centuries-old mystery of why whales and dolphins beach themselves.
If you looked at the available videos and pictures taken during strandings, you will see that the surface currents are always flowing to the beach when the lost whales swim ashore. WHALES NEVER BEACH THEMSELVES AGAINST THE FLOW OF THE CURRENT!
have been dealing with these dangerous events for roughly 50 million years of their evolutionary history. In other words, whales and their ancestors have been exposed to 90 trillion earthquakes. And many of these 90 trillion quakes kill whales outright.
The extinction of whales due to excessive danger in their aquatic environment follows the principle of natural selection. Those individuals who just happen to develop a jittery feeling prior to a large seafloor earthquake would survive and reproduce most successfully, producing many similarly jittery descendants. After numerous such breeding cycles, the better-adapted dominate the population. Nature has filtered out poorly suited individuals and the population has evolved. This is the only way to explain how whales were so successful before the invention of the harpoon.
As an example, Bowhead whales are known to be among the longest-living mammals, living for over 200 years. The whale’s age at the time of death was estimated at between 115 and 130 years. Spurred by this discovery, scientists measured the ages of other bowhead whales; one specimen was estimated to be 211 years old.
A bowhead could not live for 200+ years in the most seismically active areas on Earth, without having evolved a jittery gene that caused it to flee the area of a strong earthquake long before it happened. In other words, natural selection is a simple mechanism that causes living populations to change over time.
Obviously we are barking up the wrong tree if we think studying land animals can teach us to predict earthquakes. If humans are ever going to learn the tricks of the experts, we need to study whales with 50 million years of experience at staying alive in the most earthquake-prone environment on our planet.
In fact, our ancestors have already observed the evidence we need to prove that whales can detect seismic eruptions long before they occur. The problem is that our ancestors did not really understand what they saw. As an example:
Below is a historical account of whales fleeing long before a big quake:
1835 Feb 20: Effect of the Earthquake at Sea.—On the 20th February (1835), the same day that Concepcion, Chile, and nearby places were destroyed, Captain Wittington, in the whaling ship Nile of this port, was cruising for whales off the coast of Chile, in latitude 39° W. He felt the shock so sensibly that the spars and rigging over his head shook in such a way that it was dangerous to stand under them. Thinking that the vessel had run aground, he immediately wore ship and hove the lead, but finding no bottom with twenty fathoms of line, concluded it was an earthquake.
On a later visit to Talcahuano, his suspicions were confirmed, in the desolation and ruin which that once thriving port, then presented; as also in the fact, that the water in the bay was five or six feet lower than the usual depth. Captain Townsend states that he has been on the coast of Chili a number of voyages during the same month, and thinks he never knew such a scarcity of whales, fish, and fowls, as in the present year. It is the general opinion that the earthquake has had a tendency to drive them from the coast. Shock was very sensibly felt by Captain Cotton, of ship Loper, 600 miles from land.—New Bedford Gazette. (Army and Navy Chronicle Volume 1, 1835) (link — see page 210). You can also find the story in the right column page 405 of this book)
Capt. Townsend is reporting that whales off the Chilean coast could sense the quake coming, and left long before it struck.
Predicting earthquakes and volcanic explosions is the Holy Grail of seismology. The person that learns how to do it will surely win the Nobel Prize! But I’ll never win because I’m too old and don’t have the money nor the talent to take it all the way to the finish line. I can only hope and pray that someone with a little money and more brains them me will read my words and help me organize a research program. Anyway, rather than take what I know to be true to the grave with me, I will reveal it now and update this website every time I learn something new!
WHAT IS THE WORSE DANGER WHALES HAVE FACED FOR 50 MILLION YEARS?
As mentioned above, for every seismic disturbance on land, there are nine such events in the backyards of whales. To make matters even worse for the greatest divers our planet has ever known, the sudden vertical shifting of the seabed during a violent seismic eruption pushes and pulls against the water column generating intense changes in hydrostatic water pressure. Couple this with the fact that the greatest danger faced by any air-breathing diver is barotrauma in their cranial air spaces induced by sudden changes in diving pressures while submerged.
Barotrauma/barosinusitis in diving whales is the #1 cause of beachings. Sudden and deadly changes in water pressure that injure whales are generated during (1) shallow-focused seabed earthquakes, (2) man-made explosions (3) volcanic explosions, (4) the sudden collapse of an undersea volcanic caldera, and (5) the violent impact of a heavenly body with the water’s surface. Waves of changing water pressure generated by the above events can smash a diving whales cranial and extra-cranial air spaces, air sacs, and middle-ear air pockets like a steam roller mashes a frog,
I repeat, barotrauma in enclosed air spaces is the most common injury in every air-breathing diver that has ever lived on planet earth. For a hundred sensible medical reasons, no air-breathing diving mammal with cranial and extra-cranial air spaces could ever evolve a pressure balancing system that could prevent cranial barotrauma if exposed to rapid changes in diving pressure that exceed its ability to counterbalance. Evolution hit a wall trying to do it and was forced to take a different approach to protect whales from dangerous changes in diving pressure as discussed below! I might add not, when you learn what evolution did and did not do to protect whales, and why evolution did what it did, you will understand.
Barosinusitis is deadly in whales for two main reasons: First, because their cranial air spaces reflect, bounce, channel, direct, isolate, and insulate returning biosonar echoes, barosinusitis knocks out their ability to echo-navigated the open ocean and echolocate their food. Last be not least, barosinusitis prevents them from diving much deeper than a few feed due to extreme pain. In common language, pressure-related diving injuries wreck their biosonar and prevents them for diving and feeding!
That’s why postmortem examination shows severe dehydration in 90% of all beached whales and also why they have no fresh food in the stomach. Some whales, starving due to a pressure-related diving injury, will swallow plastic and almost anything else they see floating nearby, hoping it is digestible.
BUT MAJOR EARTHQUAKES NEVER INJURE WHALES!
Monster seismic eruptions on the seafloor never hurts whales. Only moderate events are ever connected with whale strandings. This fact is used by lying whales scientists to discredit my work. They tell the news media I’m crazy. They say if a magnitude 8 quake does not injury a family of whales, that I am nuts to claim that a 5 magnitude event does injure them is such a way to cause a stranding. Once one of these jackass scientists has conned a news reporter, they spread the words and my ideas, right or wrong, never get any press coverage. That’s why I have NO RESPECT for whale scientists or the news media.
The simple truth why major quakes never injure whales is because the big quakes always give off strong precursor signals the whales can read and the lesser quakes rarely emit whale detectable signals.
I think these has a lot to do with the shallow depth of focus of the lesser events and the rock content at the focal point. Seismic p-waves from quakes with hypo-centers less than the length of the p-wave (~7km) pass through the rock-water interface as if there was not interface at all. Magnitude for magnitude, shallow quakes generated stronger whale-dangerous p-waves than the larger/deeper events. There is also much to be discovered about the actual mechanics of whale dangerous events and about the whales themselves.
I need experts from many fields. About the only thing I know for sure in that whales swim away from major events 3-4 weeks before they happen
SEISMIC SHOCKS KILLING WHALES COMPARED TO SEISMIC SHOCKS KILLING LAND MAMMALS
There is a huge difference between how an earthquake kills land mammals and how a seaquake kills marine mammals. Most land mammals are killed during a landslide, mudslide, cracked dam, falling buildings, broken bridge, and tsunami waves. On the other hand, seaquakes generate drastic oscillations in ambient water pressure that can squeeze and rupture the cranial air spaces of marine mammals like a steam roller mashes a frog.
CAN WHALES DETECT UNDERSEA UPHEAVALS IN TIME TO AVOID A PRESSURE-RELATED SEISMIC INJURY?
Earthquakes at sea occur due to sudden release of tectonic stresses in the seafloor. The process activates highly mobile electronic charge carriers that flow out of the stressed rocks. Only ULF/ELF waves travel through both rock and seawater. The local magnetic field also becomes stronger shortly before an undersea earthquake. Increases in the ULF/ELF signals (0.01 Hz to 0.5 Hz) ~30 days prior to an earthquake have been reported. Bottom line is that if whales can detect charged carriers 30 days in advance, they would have plenty of time to swim 3,000 miles away.
In physics, charge carriers are particles that carry an electric charge and are free to move. Electrons, ions, and holes are examples of charged carriers.
In seawater charged carriers are ions. They are molecules that have gained or lost electrons so they are also electrically charged.
In water, sodium chloride (NaCl), dissolves into positively charged sodium ions (Na+) and negatively charged chlorine atoms (Cl-). A solution of ions such as this is called an electrolyte. Seawater is electrically neutral; however, if exposed to static-electricity discharges during the preliminary stage of a strong undersea earthquake, the charged carrier background level will rise sharply.
LIGHTNING IN THE SEABED!
One theory is that when an earthquake looms, the rock “goes through a strange change,” producing intense electrical currents on the order of 100,000 amperes for a magnitude 6 earthquake and a million amperes for a magnitude 7 event. It really is like underground lightning. Scientists have measured these currents with instruments sensitive enough to detect magnetic pulses from electrical discharges up to 10 miles (16 kilometers) away. “In a typical day along the San Andreas fault in California you might see ten pulses per day. The fault is always moving, grinding, snapping, and crackling. The electric discharged is related to underground activity as a fault prepares to slip.
under construction below!
|Title:||Enhanced ULF electromagnetic activity detected by DEMETER above seismogenic regions|
|Authors:||Athanasiou, M.; Machairidis, G.; David, C.; Anagnostopoulos, G.|
|Keywords:||Physics – Geophysics|
|Comment:||17 pages, PDF, Submitted for publication in Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences|
In this paper we present results of a comparison between ultra low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation, recorded by an electric field instrument (ICE) onboard the satellite DEMETER in the topside ionosphere, and the seismicity of regions with high and lower seiismic activity. In particular we evaluated the energy variations of the ULF Ez-electric field component during a period of four years (2006-2009), in order to examine check the possible relation of ULF EM radiation with seismogenic regions located in central America, Indonesia, Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Greece. As a tool of evaluating the ULF Ez energy variations we used Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) techniques. The results of our analysis clearly show a significant increase of the ULF EM energy emmited from regions of highest seismic activity at the tectonic plates boundaries. We interpret these results as suggesting that the highest ULF EM energy detected in the topside ionosphere is originated from seismic processes within Earth’s crust. We understand the results of the present study as confirming previous evidence that the ULF EM anomalous wave activity in the ionosphere can be considered a useful earthquake precursory signal
THE BIG QUESTION IS HOW TO DIVING WHALES DETECT CHARGED CARRIERS?
A few geomagnetic biologists are running around saying that whales beach themselves in areas where the magnetic field strength is low. NOAA is now spending millions of taxpayer dollars to study how solar flares screw up the magnetic compass of whales. This is the dumbest waste of taxpayer money I have seen in the 53 years I been studying why whales beach.
HOW DO CHARGED CARRIERS ALTER THE TASTE OF SEAWATER?
TASTING THE DIFFERENCE IN SODIUM IONS INDUCED IN SEAWATER DURING THE PREPARATORY PERIOD OF A WHALE DANGEROUS EARTHQUAKE
As mentioned above, only 10% of the World’s earthquakes happen on land. Still, documented studies show that zoo animals refuse to go into their cages before earthquakes. Snakes, lizards, and rats come up out of their holes. Hyperactive insects congregate in swarms near seashores. Cattle and other herding animals seek high ground, and birds leave their normal habitats.
In other words, there is evidence that 10% of earth’s natural violence alarms animals, birds, and insects! Can we pretend, as the US Navy and all our whale scientists do now, that the other 90% that occur in ocean do not alarm aquatic animals? I don’t think so. I think we must assume that if we are ever to learn how to predict earthquakes in plenty of time to save millions of human lives, we must look to marine life for the solution!
We could save millions of lives if we could only figure out how they do it. Even thought this is not rocket science, at 76 years old, I can not do it alone. I need help from honest scientists and concerned government agencies. I also need help from anyone willing to do online research.
Evolution is the only way animals know when a seismic danger nears. This means the longer a species has survived in a dangerous seismic environment, the more likely they have evolved a seismic response gene.
As we know, genes spontaneously mutate or change, causing changes in individual species. If these changes cause animals to be nervous at the slightest hint of a seismic eruption, and their jittery feeling causes them to flee the area before the eruption occurs, they would live longer and have more time to bear more offspring than the other animals that did not posses the nervous gene.
The sames would apply to whales. In time, the jittery gene would spread and more whales would start swimming away at the first hint of a seafloor upheaval.
THE FIRST CHOICE
Water is a much better carrier of sound than air so the noise of micro-quakes that start weeks before the big shock is certainly something to look at. But there are maybe 20 more precursory signals that must be investigated.
MY FIRST CHOICE
An earthquake is not an instantaneous phenomenon. There is evidence that anomalous changes of the geomagnetic field take place weeks prior to strong earthquakes. These precursors have been reported by a number of researchers, raising suspicion that cetaceans might be spooked by changes in the geomagnetic field.
As it turns out, there is the possibility that iron within the hemoglobin molecules in their blood might react to increases or even decreases in the geomagnetic intensity. An increase would likely signal danger whereas a decrease would signal seismic safety. If true, whales would shy away for danger zones presented by geomagnetic highs and seek out safety near geomagnetic lows. There is lots of evidence that this is indeed happening.
Whale meat is red, which indicates there is a large quantity of myoglobin contained in its muscle fibers. Myoglobin, like the blood pigment hemoglobin, is a combination of a chemical component heme, which contains iron, and globin, a simple protein. In other words, the entire body of a huge whales could indeed quiver if exposed to a strong magnetic field.
But how would the whale’s brain detect seismic geomagnetism? Functional magnetic resonance detects changes in blood flow in the brain and provides information on the brain activity. When activity increases in a particular region of the brain, there is an increase demand for oxygen. This in turn stimulates a local increase in blood flow as well as an expansion in the blood vessels, which brings more oxygenated hemoglobin. Because the heme in hemoglobin is slightly repelled by a magnetic field when it is fully oxygenated and slightly attracted by a magnetic field when the oxygen is consumed, some portions of the brain when exposed to an increase in the geomagnetic field strength could make the whales nervous and jittery.
Without this jittery gene, whales would have likely became extinct millions of years ago or they would migrated to seismic free zones. To find out, I started looking at whale calving areas all around the world and found them totally free of dangerous seismic activity below 3.5 magnitude and epicentered deeper than 10 kilometers, At this point in our research, these lesser earthquakes do not seem injurious to whales. Quakes less than 3.5 do not release enough energy unless they are focused less than 2-3 kilometers below the rock-water interface.
In my opinion, the above mentioned earthquake-safe zones have likely been passed down from mother to daughter for millions of years
The environment forces changes. If seismic upheavals were benign to whales then very little change will be expected. On the other hand, if there is a danger of death, the jittery genes that give whales an advantage will be passed on. Other genes of no life extending qualities will become lost or reduced and found in fewer and fewer individuals.
IS PREDICTING EARTHQUAKES EASY FOR WHALES?
My work indicates that they can sense earthquake precursors long before any other animal on earth. For example, not long ago, as early tsunami warnings hit the Indonesian and Sri Lanka coasts. Whale watchers were shocked when cetacean disappeared within five minutes. British film-maker Andrew Sutton, filming off Sri Lanka, reports that the whales he was filming suddenly vanished. The people on the boat were unaware that the quake had happened. But the whales had sensed the danger and fled the area.
Such evidence is not new!
SEE MORE EVIDENCE BELOW!
Predicting earthquakes can save the lives of millions of humans. The evidence indicates that whales predict earthquakes weeks before a major event occurs.
The problem is that whale scientists ignore any concept that comes from the Deafwhale Society. Scientists even claim whales are not injured by the intense changes in water pressure generated by undersea seismic upheavals. Rather, they claim most whales are killed by ship collisions. My goodness, a noisy ship could never sneak up on a healthy whale. As far as commercial ship noise and oil survey ships, whales quickly move to a safe distance from the racket.
While a few scientists consider whales to be mindless creatures programmed only with instincts, most know them as being capable of coherent thought and emotions far beyond our imagination. But they will not accept 4 billion-year history of god-awesome seismic upheavals on the ocean floor as a danger to whales. And since they avoid all consideration of the dangerous of seismic upheavals, they have no idea about how whales might avoid deadly shock waves. They just ignore seismic disturbances on the seabed.
Whales are ten times more intelligent in their water world than we are in ours. And that’s the way it should be because they have ~50 million more years of experience living in the oceans than we have living on land.
PREDICTING NATURAL CATASTROPHIC UPHEAVALS ON THE SEAFLOOR
WE NEED WHALES TO TEACH US HOW THEY DO IT!
Mega-quake warnings along the Cascadia Fault in California are at an all-time high! Such events (including tsunamis) have killed more humans than all other disasters put together, claiming nearly a million lives in the last 15 years alone. The number of deaths predicted in the near future is many times greater due to the growing population. And it seems that unless we act now, a series of major seismic disasters might even wipe out the entire United States, killing you and your loved ones before you can do anything to save them!
Whales are experts at predicting earthquakes! Why should we not at least do a preliminary investigation? But for some ungodly reason, whale scientists avoid investigating any association between natural seafloor violence and injury in the world’s most prolific divers (whales).
This avoidance is not an exaggeration! Not one scientists is the entire world is and has ever investigated seismic upheavals on the seabed and whales.
Many earthquake forecasters will tell you. The greatest danger the Earth faces now is the super-volcano that underlies the Yellowstone National Park.
WHAT WILL SET OFF YELLOWSTONE?
Many experts think the seismic P and S waves from a nearby mega-quake (mag 9+) might do it. The closest danger spot is along the Cascadia Fault off California’s West Coast. There is another pending mega-quake that might erupt at any moment along the banks of the Mississippi River. In other words, the US could get hit almost simultaneously by two mega-quakes that would, in turn, set off the Yellowstone Super-volcano. Or, if the super-volcano went first, seismic waves from this eruption is sure to set off the two pending mega-quakes.
The first event is likely to occur along the Cascadia Fault Zone.
Your guess is as good as mine if this event will happen in your lifetime. But if it does, you can bet that seismic P and S waves will travel the short distance to Yellowstone’s super-volcano.
MEGA-QUAKES NOT OUR GREATEST DANGER
The super-volcano at the center of Yellowstone National Park will be 100 million times more deadly than the nuclear bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
Looking at the odds that one of the three killer events might occur is frightening. When you add the likelihood that active seismic shocks from the first could travel a few thousand miles and easily trip the second and the third events, it becomes a frightening nightmare. The fallout from such a one-two-three punch would spread at least a meter of volcanic ash all across our country, spelling the end of the United States.
However, if I am right about whales, we would get a 3-week warning so we could gather our loved ones and escape before hell arrives! We might also get a warning from the oar fish (hundreds of examples) if we just make an effort to find the key to how whales and oar fish get their warnings.
PREDICTING SEISMIC UPHEAVALS WEEKS IN ADVANCE IS EASY FOR WHALE!
How do we know? The answer is simple: whales flee from the site of strong earthquakes >6.5 magnitude 3 to 4 weeks before they occur. They seem to be even more sensitive than the oar fish.
There are many modern and historical accounts of this phenomenon. Click this link for a recent example from 2016 in which whales appeared early in San Francisco Bay to avoid a strong 7.8 magnitude quake that devastated Ecuador’s coastline.
THE EVIDENCE IS EVERYWHERE
Another strange incident occurred from November 2012 to July 2013 when ~500 North Atlantic right whales did not show up at their usual feeding grounds off Cape Cod. It just so happened that on 12 April 2012, a rapid series of five earthquakes occurred 220 miles east of Cape Cod and South of the southern tip of Nova Scotia all within a few hours. Five moderate events, one after the next, released a tremendous amount of tectonic stress. There is a good possibility that hundreds of small non-detectable aftershocks occur on the causative fault or its extension into the deeper earth. Scientists call the movement afterslip. It may happen in the form of frequent earthquakes or as slow slip events not detected by seismic stations.
There is also solid evidence that whales can detect geomagnetic signals. the noise of micro-quakes, maybe even infrared signals, or other signals we don’t yet know about!
However, if the seismic afterslip gives off precursory signals detectable by North Atlantic Right Whales, it would indeed explain why they avoided the area. They might have understood the seafloor was unstable and a potential danger to themselves and their young.
In a third example, scientists observed that a fin whale exposed to a magnitude 5.1 earthquake in the Gulf of California on 22 February 2005 swam 13 km from the epicenter in 26 min (mean speed = 30.2 km/ h) — a speed that indicates the presence of stress and danger. These scientists thought the sound of the quake triggered a seismic-escape response. Maybe it was the fear of an aftershock that scared them?
SCIENTISTS DO NOT BELIEVE THAT SHOCK WAVES GENERATED BY SEABED EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANIC EXPLOSIONS ARE DANGEROUS TO WHALES.
In the above incident, the problem with the idea of “fleeing from the sound” is that the focus of the quake was 41 km below the seafloor. The sound a deep event spreads out in a 360-degree circle before it reaches the water. It would have been about as loud as a whale passing gas. On the other hand, an unknown silent precursor might have sent an alarmed causing the whale to scamper away. The scientists based their opinion on the hypothesis of Richardson et al. (1995) who said cetaceans flee from loud sounds. This observation is likely true, but it is also likely true that whales flee from precursor signals emitted before the seismic noise even begins
WHY DID WHALES EVOLVE THIS ABILITY?
Professor Peter Wille, the former head of NATO’s Undersea Research Center, writes in his book Sound Images of the Ocean that the marine environment is disturbed by “the rumblings of about 7,000 outstanding, dramatic geodynamic earthquake events per year worldwide, each of a thousand tons TNT-equivalent and more” (page 38). He ought to know. His job was to determine the acoustic differences between underwater nuclear explosions and natural catastrophic seafloor eruptions. Professor Wille adds, “If evolution has achieved inurement of marine mammals against such terrifying noise events is speculative though probable.”
A THOUSANDS TONS OF TNT!
Could whales flourish for 50 million years with 7,000 Hiroshima bombs going off near them every year? No way could they live in the ocean unless they received early warning of some kind. Changes in the surrounding water pressure generated when the sea floor either explodes or dances up and down rapidly are a hundred times more deadly to diving mammals than to land dwellers because diving mammals capture air and bring it underwater in their sinuses and lungs. Water is not compressible, but the air is. So when the water above an earthquake transmits the full force of the disturbance, whales, fishes with swim bladders and sea turtles will feel unimaginably intense torture in their cranial and extracranial air spaces.
Every small boy knows what happens if he submerges his head underwater and smashes two stones together. A solid blow causes pain in and around his sinuses. Similarly, the passage of earthquake shock waves through a whale’s sinuses makes the sinuses both compress and expand with dangerous and damaging intensity.
SEISMIC PRESSURE DISTURBANCES BLOW OUT THE SINUSES OF DIVING WHALES!
Underwater earthquake shocks (aka; seaquakes) are not felt as a single blow. Rather, the rapid pressure changes come as a series of wrenching snaps. This is true because of the massive rocks, twisted and strained out of alignment by forces accumulated slowly over centuries, suddenly lurches back toward an alignment that relieves the stress. The result is that solid rock, which normally moves only with the passing of geological ages, accelerates briefly to 8000 kilometers per hour. This sudden jerking unleashes a series of violent hydrostatic pressure shocks.
If this snap back to realignment occurs in a vertical plane, as it does during both normal and reverse (thrust) faulting, and the hypocenter (focus) is between 8 and 20 km below the rock-water interface, the p-waves will impact the rocky seabed and cause it to dance up and down like the skin of a drum fifty miles in diameter. This sudden up and down motion pushes and pulls at the bottom of the non-compressible water. This violent jerking generates a series of intense low-frequency changes in the surrounding water pressure. The pressure wave rushes towards the surface at 1,500 meters per second.
HOW SEISMIC WAVES TRAVEL IN WATER
Seismic waves, like sound waves, move as half cycles of compressions and decompressions. During the compression phase, the volume of air in the cranial sinuses of whales is compress to less than 1/10 of normal volume. During the decompression phase, the air would instantly expand to 10 times normal volume.
Diving exposes their cranial air spaces to dramatic changes in pressure. This means as cetaceans dive, the increasing pressure will cause a decrease in the volume of air held in a closed chamber (e.g., sinuses, air cells, middle ear, air sacs, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, and lungs). These divers encounter rapid changes in pressures during diving and during the ascent back to the surface. These pressure changes pose a challenge to air-filled chambers. This is especially true for sinuses with rigid walls (such as the paranasal sinuses.
WHALES ARE THE MOST PROLIFIC DIVERS ON EARTH
The most common injury in ALL DIVERS (whales included) is sinus and middle ear barotrauma caused by rapid and excessive changes in diving pressures that exceed their ability to counterbalance.
Many scholars have spent decades trying to find out if land animals could detect seismic precursors. But they failed to consider that nine times more seismic upheavals occur in the seabed.
Dangerous changes in water pressure induced by natural seafloor disturbances have batter whales for 50 million years. Feeling nervous just before an earthquake gave them the ability to flourish in a seismically active ocean.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WHALES CANNOT ESCAPE?
Because the air-filled cranial spaces of odontocete whales serve as acoustic mirrors that enable their echo-navigation and echolocation, sinus injury can have devastating effects: it will not only prevent them from diving and feeding themselves due to pain but will also destroy their acoustic sense of direction. The same applies to mysticetes even though they are not as acoustically advanced as odontocetes.
Scientists have seen baleen whales swimming around magnetic highs. This led scientists to assume they use a magnetic compass. Other scientists have also advance claims that whales swim into sandy beaches at magnetic minima.
Beach sand contains tiny bits of magnetite washed into the sea from land. Shifting sand orientates magnetite in all direction. The magnetic north and south of each grain oppose its neighbor. This gives most beaches a magnetic minimum.
WHALE SCIENTISTS ARE WRONG!
They came up with the idea that geomagnetic fluctuations caused navigation failure. They studied records of whale and dolphin strandings along many beaches from Florida to New England.
Their findings did not explain why whales entered shallow waters or swam onto the shore. But it did show that odontoceti had a tendency to beach where the magnetic field was the weakest. Black volcanic sand indicates a beach with a strong magnetic field. There are no black beaches on the US Atlantic Coast.
But seeking out magnetic lows is more likely a tactic to avoid geomagnetic highs emitted by pending earthquakes. In other words, the whales are swimming towards the weak magnetic field to avoid dangerous seismic zones. If we just watch their movements, we might see them predicting earthquakes.
TOOTH WHALES MASS STRAND
A seaquake less than magnitude 6 and without a detectable precursor could catch a submerged pod of feeding whales off-guard. If so, they will suffer serious barotraumatic injuries in their cranial and middle ear air spaces. This causes their echo-navigation system to fail. Pain would also prevent them from diving and feeding.
Drag forces in a flowing current is like a wind vane. It turns lost whales downstream and points them in the path of least resistance. For example, incoming tidal flow would serve to guide them to sandy areas. This is true because the flow of the water is the same energy that carries sand to build beaches. The wind-driven surface currents will also help guide the lost, dehydrated, and malnourished whales.
HUMAN THREATS TO WHALES
Undersea earthquakes, volcanic explosions, and meteorites crashing into the ocean’s surface can generate shock waves in excess of 100,000 pounds per square inch.
Once we know which precursors whales rely on, we can duplicate these signals. If lucky, we will be able to use them to frighten whales away dangerous human activity.
WHALES SAVING HUMANS IS A TWO-WAY STREET
If they teach us to predict earthquakes weeks in advance, we would be foolish not to protect them.
Capt. David Williams
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